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Image / Man on a mule, San Basilio de Palenque, 1976

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Man on a mule, San Basilio de Palenque, 1976
Cross, Richard, 1950-1983
Date Created and/or Issued
Publication Information
California State University, Northridge
Contributing Institution
California State University, Northridge
Richard Cross Photographs (Bradley Center)
Rights Information
Use of images from the collections of the Tom & Ethel Bradley Center is strictly prohibited by law without prior written consent from the copyright holders. The responsibility for the use of these materials rests exclusively with the user.
The Bradley Center may assist in obtaining copyright/licensing permission to use images from the Richard Cross collection.
A man wearing a hat is riding a mule in an open field. Two bags hang on each side of the mule and are filled with leaves. Few cattle roam free in the background. San Basilio del Palenque, a town located 31 miles from Cartagena, is considered the first community to officially free enslaved people in the Americas because on August 23, 1691, the Spanish King Charles II signed a royal charter recognizing the freedom of the runaway slave communities in the María Mountains. Local authorities, however, did not sign a treaty with these communities until January of 1714 acknowledging their freedom and ordering the establishment of the town of Palenque San Basilio Magno. People in San Basilio del Palenque speak a Spanish-based creole language known as Palenquero. According to public records, in 1975 the village had 2,400 residents (mostly farmers or day laborers) and 388 houses. Colombian anthropologist Nina S. De Friedemann had been studying the Afro-Colombian community of San Basilio del Palenque for the Colombian Institute of Anthropology and Richard Cross joined her to do work as a visual anthropologist in June 1975. This image illustrates Cross's anthropological category: Inventory of male-female work roles.
Un hombre que lleva un sombrero está montando una mula en un campo abierto. Dos costales cuelgan a cada lado de la mula y están llenos de hojas. Algunas vacas deambulan libres en el fondo. San Basilio del Palenque, un pueblo ubicado a 31 millas de Cartagena, considera la primera comunidad en liberar oficialmente a personas esclavizadasde América porque el 23 de agosto de 1691, el rey español Carlos II firmó una cédula real que reconoce la libertad de las comunidades de personas fugitivas en las montañas de María. Sin embargo, las autoridades locales no firmaron un tratado con estas communidades sino hasta enero de 1714, reconociendo su libertad y ordenando el establecimiento del poblado Palenque San Basilio Magno. La gente en San Basilio del Palenque habla una lengua criolla con base en español conocido como palenquero. Según los registros públicos locales, en 1975 el pueblo tenía 2.400 residentes (en su mayoría agricultores o jornaleros) y 388 casas. La antropóloga colombiana Nina S. de Friedemann había estado estudiando la comunidad afrocolombiana de San Basilio del Palenque desde 1973 para el Instituto Colombiano de Antropología y Richard Cross se unió a ella para trabajar como antropólogo visual en junio de 1975. Esta imagen ilustra la categoría antropológicas de Cross: Inventario de roles de trabajo hombre-mujer.
Black-and-white negatives
35 mm
Men, Black--Colombia--San Basilio del Palenque
Agricultural laborers--Colombia--San Basilio del Palenque
San Basilio del Palenque (Colombia)
Richard Cross Photographs
California State University Northridge. University Library. Special Collections & Archives. Tom & Ethel Bradley Center

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