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T: Cheng-shu H: Nan-t'ien, Yün-shi wai-shih, Pai-yün wai-shih, Tung-yüan ts'ao-i In this album Yün uses a technique known as the "boneless" (mogu) to depict the flowers, leaves, and stalks. This method uses shading and ink and color gradations to describe the plant without outline. It was a technique that can trace its roots to the eleventh-century painter Hsü Ch'ung-ssu. Other artists of the early Ming were also using this technique, but in Yün's hands it creates an extremely airy and light appearance, almost as if the plants were floating in space.