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Data from: Frequency Drives Lexical Access in Reading but Not in Speaking: The Frequency-lag Hypothesis
Duyck, Wouter
Goldenberg, Diane
Gollan, Tamar H
Slattery, Timothy J
Van Assche, Eva
Date Created and/or Issued
Contributing Institution
UC San Diego, Library, Research Data Curation Program
Keith Rayner Eye Movements in Reading Data Collection
Rights Information
Under copyright
Constraint(s) on Use: This work is protected by the U.S. Copyright Law (Title 17, U.S.C.). Use of this work beyond that allowed by "fair use" requires written permission of the UC Regents. Responsibility for obtaining permissions and any use and distribution of this work rests exclusively with the user and not the UC San Diego Library. Inquiries can be made to the UC San Diego Library program having custody of the work.
Use: This work is available from the UC San Diego Library. This digital copy of the work is intended to support research, teaching, and private study.
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UC Regents
Publication abstract: To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word frequency (high, low), context (none, low constraint, high constraint), and level of English proficiency (monolingual, Spanish-English bilingual, Dutch-English bilingual) on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic constraint effects were larger in production than in reading. Frequency effects were larger in production than in reading without constraining context but larger in reading than in production with constraining context. Bilingual disadvantages were modulated by frequency in production but not in eye fixation times, were not smaller in low-constraint contexts, and were reduced by high-constraint' contexts only in production and only at the lowest level of English proficiency. These results challenge existing accounts of bilingual disadvantages and reveal fundamentally different processes during lexical access across modalities, entailing a primarily semantically driven search in production but a frequency-driven search in comprehension. The apparently more interactive process in production than comprehension could simply reflect a greater number of frequency-sensitive processing stages in production. Subject population: Adults, student, bilingual
Research Data Curation Program, UC San Diego, La Jolla, 92093-0175 (
Gollan, Tamar H; Slattery, Timothy J; Goldenberg, Diane; van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Rayner, Keith (2015): Data from: Frequency drives lexical access in reading but not in speaking: The frequency-lag hypothesis. In Keith Rayner Eye Movements in Reading Data Collection. UC San Diego Library Digital Collections.
Gollan, T.H., Slattery, T.J., Goldenberg, D., van Assche, E., Duyck, W., & Rayner, K. (2011). Frequency drives lexical access in reading but not in speaking: The frequency-lag hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140, 186-209.
This package contains data for one regular reading experiment and one lexical decision experiment (Both included under "Experiment 2" in the manuscript). Data from Experiment 1 are not included because it was a picture naming study, not an eye tracking study. Additionally, data collected at Ghent University (Dutch-English bilinguals) are excluded. Data for the Spanish-English Bilinguals are located in the "Spanish-English Bilinguals” sub-directory and data for the English Monolinguals are located in the "Monolinguals” sub-directory. Within each subject group sub-directory, data from the lexical decision portion are included in the "Lexical Decision" sub-directories and data from the reading portion are included in the "Reading" sub-directories. See the Guide (Related Resource link, below) for details on some of the different types of files and column definitions that are contained in the data collection.
Eye movements
Word predictability
Word frequency

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