We recommend you include the following information in your citation. Look below the item for additional data you may want to include.
Contact Owning Institution
All fields are required.
Copyrighted Transmission or reproduction of materials protected by copyright beyond that allowed by fair use requires the written permission of the copyright owners. Works not in the public domain cannot be commercially exploited without permission of the copyright owner. Responsibility for any use rests exclusively with the user.
Scope/Content: Abstract: Small rivers commonly discharge into coastal settings with topographic complexities-such as headlands and islands - but these settings are under represented in river plume studies compared to more simplified, straightcoasts. The Elwha River provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of coastal topography on abuoyant plume, because it discharges into the Strait of Juande Fuca on the western side of its deltaic headland. Hereweshowthatthisheadlandinducesflowseparationandtransienteddiesinthetidally dominatedcurrents(O(100cm/s)),consistentwithotherheadlandsinoscillatoryflow.Theseflow conditionsareobservedtostronglyinfluencethebuoyantriverplume,aspredictedbythe''small-scale'' or ''narrow''dynamicalclassificationusing Garvine's(1995) system. Becauseofthetransienteddiesand the locationoftherivermouthontheheadland,flowimmediatelyoffshoreoftherivermouthisdirected eastwardtwiceasfrequentlyasitiswestward.Thisresultsinabuoyantplumethatismuchmore frequently''bentover''towardtheeastthanthewest.Duringbentoverplumeconditions,theplumewas attachedtotheeasternshorelinewhilehavingadistinct,cuspatefrontalongitswesternmostboundary. The locationofthefrontwasfoundtoberelatedtothemagnitudeanddirectionoflocalflowduringthe precedingO(1h),andincreasesinalongshoreflowresultedindeeperfreshwatermixing,stronger baroclinicanomalies,andstrongerhuggingofthecoast.Duringbentoverplumeconditions,weobserved significantconvergenceofriverplumewatertowardthefrontalboundarywithin1kmoftherivermouth. Theseresultsshowhowcoastaltopographycanstronglyinfluencebuoyantplumebehavior,andthey shouldassistwithunderstandingofinitialcoastalsedimentdispersalpathwaysfromtheElwhaRiver during apendingdamremovalproject. Scope/Content: Author affiliation: USGS