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Photograph of unidentified picketer attending a demonstration. The man's picket sign calls upon Judge Harold Medina to free three of the New York 12, members of the National Committee of the Communist Party. On July 20, 1948, a federal grand jury indicted the 12 for conspiring to subvert the government. The indictment listed the acts of subversion as: organizing a political party dedicated to Marxism-Leninism promoting Marxism-Leninism in publications and establishing schools to teach the need to overthrow the government by force or violence. Eleven of the 12 were tried in the U.S. District Courthouse in Foley Square, New York City all were convicted and sentenced to serve prison terms. Defendants appealed their convictions, but the U.S. Supreme Court in 1951 upheld the trial court's decision.