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A young woman and her puppy represent the Kan'ei era, a time when the Tokugawa shogunate was consolidating its power in Edo but still viewing the imperial capital of Kyoto as the center of Japanese culture. The bold designs on her kimono and the juxtaposition of patterns (many with tie-dye / shibori infill) are typical of the era. The ruffled collar on the dog may be a humorous reference to European / Nanban fashions that were popular in the late 16th century when foreign traders and Christian missionaries who wore such collars regularly visited Kyoto, but by the early 17th century these trendy neck ornaments had begun to lose the "chic" associations.