Physical rights are retained by the photographer, Tony Crowley. Copyright is retained by the photographer, Tony Crowley.
Loyalist graffiti, Peace Line, Lower Shankill, West Belfast, 1989. 'UVF' - Ulster Volunteer Force; 'FTP' - Fuck the Pope; 'Fuck Taigs' - Taig is derogatory reference to Catholic; 'Fuck IRA UDA Rules UVF'. The Peace Lines are mostly made of brick and steel walls up to 25 feet high, topped with metal netting; some have gates in them (as here). The first barriers were constructed in early 1970s, and they have multiplied over the years; there were 18 in the early 1990's and more than 40 in 2006; in total in various parts of Northern Ireland, but concentrated in Belfast, they stretch over 13 miles. Loyalist